Policy Memos

Estonia and Russia Through a Three-Way Mirror: Views of the Post-Soviet Generation

Policy Memo:


Publication Date:




Co-authors: Heather Conley, Lucy Moore

Twenty years after independence, Estonia has joined the European Union, NATO, and, most recently, the Eurozone. Yet the country continues to struggle in its relationship with its Russian-speaking minority, who constitute roughly one quarter of Estonia’s population. Many who were not automatically granted citizenship in post-Soviet Estonia (those who were not citizens of Estonia before WWII or their descendents) resent the requirement imposed by the Estonian government that they pass language and civics tests in order to obtain Estonian citizenship. [...]

More (PDF)

About the author

Professor of Sociology
University of Wisconsin-Madison