Policy Memos

Putin's Anti-Federal Reform 2: Back to the USSR

Policy Memo:


Publication Date:




The second phase of federal reforms, announced by the Kremlin in September 2004 fit into the general logic of reform under President Vladimir Putin. After a series of criminal investigations launched against regional governors, the Kremlin declared war against them. The governors have been the Kremlin’s target since Putin came to power in 2000, and it was only due to the upcoming Duma elections that the Kremlin concluded a ceasefire with them in early 2003. In the absence of independent party leaders and with oligarchs diminished by the Kremlin, the governors had replaced both as independent political actors. [...]


About the author

Professor, Department of Comparative Politics
Higher School of Economics, Moscow