Policy Memos

Recurring Referendums: The Struggle for Constitutional 'Reform' in Kyrgyzstan

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With the adoption of its new constitution by referendum on June 27, 2010, Kyrgyzstan made history by becoming only the second state in post-Soviet Eurasia (after Moldova, and not including the Baltics) to adopt a “parliamentary-style” form of government. Equally worth noting is the fact that Kyrgyzstan is the only post-Soviet state to depose two directly-elected presidents within five years via popular mobilization. Not coincidentally, it has also changed its constitution and electoral laws most frequently. [...]

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About the author

Professor of Political Science, Director, Islamic Studies Program
University of Michigan