Policy Memo # 533
Stanislav Tkachenko 14 Jun 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) In 2017, the term “Russian hackers” became a brand similar to that of Stolichnaya, Aeroflot, and Lada. Russia’s information and communication technologies (ICT) sector became described as having incredible capabilities, to the extent that it can manipulate the political destinies of other states including the United States. This has not been exactly helpful for Russia’s ICT enterprises, the majority of which have nothing to do...
Policy Memo # 532
Kimitaka Matsuzato 04 Jun 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) In the late spring of 2014, Donetsk People’s Republic (DPR) militants seized Mariupol and Kramatorsk, but they were soon recaptured by the Ukrainian army. Both cities are close to the DPR military border and are typical company towns containing several dominate enterprises that provide significant portions of local employment. City politics in this part of Ukraine has traditionally been controlled by the preferences and resources of...
Policy Memo # 531
Edward Schatz 01 Jun 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Much has changed in Uzbekistan since December 2016, when Shavkat Mirziyoyev was elected president following the death of long-time dictator Islam Karimov. Prisoners have been released en masse; entrenched national elites have been shaken from their complacency; corrupt officials have been relieved of their duties, with some now facing prosecution; the role of the security services in everyday life has been diminished; prominent...
Keeping the “New Cold War” Cold: Nuclear Deterrence With U.S. and Russian Nuclear Force Modernization
Policy Memo # 530
Keith Darden 18 May 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) After two decades of dramatic reduction and deliberate neglect, the nuclear arsenals that were at the center of security relations between the Cold War superpowers are reaching the ends of their operational lives. Rather than allow age and obsolescence to erode their nuclear capabilities and carry us into a post-nuclear era, both Russia and the United States chose to modernize and redevelop their nuclear arsenals with new weapons...
Policy Memo # 529
Volodymyr Ishchenko 17 May 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Ukraine today faces a vicious circle of nationalist radicalization involving mutual reinforcement between far-right groups and the dominant oligarchic pyramids. This has significantly contributed to a post-Euromaidan domestic politics that is not unifying the country but creating divisiveness and damaging Ukrainian relations with its strategically important neighbors. The lack of a clear institutionalized political and...
Policy Memo # 528
Pavel Baev 04 May 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) As the confrontation between the West and Russia matures, the proposition that the West should combine military containment with engagement in areas of mutual interest has been gaining wider popularity than have Putinversteher calls for empathy with Russia. Cooperation in the fight against terrorism is typically identified as one of the most obvious areas of mutual interest. The rationale for this cooperative exemption from...
Policy Memo # 527
Eiki Berg, Kristel Vits 01 May 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) De facto states operate against unfavorable international legal conditions, combined with manifest security threats and widespread political disengagement from the international community. Moreover, they are affected by a mix of economic sanctions and are forced into socio-cultural isolation. This leads to an enduring “do or die” dilemma where de facto states either seek protection from external patrons (“do”) or face the...
Policy Memo # 526
Ivan Kurilla 26 Apr 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Donald Trump’s triumph in the 2016 presidential election discharged an unprecedented political and media movement linking his victory to Russian interference in the U.S. political system. The president’s defenders called this a “witch hunt” but they frequently became cornered by the significant amount of U.S. public and Congressional opinion that wanted Washington to curtail any possible amelioration in Russian-U.S. relations. Just...
Policy Memo # 525
Volodymyr Kulyk 19 Apr 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) The Ukrainian parliament launched a long-expected education reform policy with the adoption of a new “law on education” in September 2017. This development was welcomed by civil society and Ukraine’s Western partners that have pushed for radical reforms in a variety of domains after the victory of the Euromaidan revolution. However, the new law provoked an outcry from nearby states—particularly Hungary, which was most vocal...
How to Strengthen Western Engagement in Central Asia: Spotlight on EU Education Assistance in Uzbekistan
Policy Memo # 524
Sebastien Peyrouse 17 Apr 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) The European Union’s 2007 Strategy for Central Asia identified education as a key area of cooperation. To this end, the EU launched programs to initiate and encourage fundamental reforms, and to liberalize and modernize education systems in the region. Yet, twenty years later, a review by the EU Directorate General for External Policies made clear its disappointment over the EU’s engagement in Central Asia as being “of limited to...
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