Policy Memo # 525
Volodymyr Kulyk 19 Apr 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) The Ukrainian parliament launched a long-expected education reform policy with the adoption of a new “law on education” in September 2017. This development was welcomed by civil society and Ukraine’s Western partners that have pushed for radical reforms in a variety of domains after the victory of the Euromaidan revolution. However, the new law provoked an outcry from nearby states—particularly Hungary, which was most vocal...
How to Strengthen Western Engagement in Central Asia: Spotlight on EU Education Assistance in Uzbekistan
Policy Memo # 524
Sebastien Peyrouse 17 Apr 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) The European Union’s 2007 Strategy for Central Asia identified education as a key area of cooperation. To this end, the EU launched programs to initiate and encourage fundamental reforms, and to liberalize and modernize education systems in the region. Yet, twenty years later, a review by the EU Directorate General for External Policies made clear its disappointment over the EU’s engagement in Central Asia as being “of limited to...
Policy Memo # 523
Kornely Kakachia 11 Apr 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Russia’s swift achievement of its political objectives in Crimea while firing hardly a shot generated much debate about the use and effectiveness of “hybrid warfare.” Although the term lacks a clear definition, it refers to Moscow’s use of a broad range of subversive instruments, many nonmilitary, to further the Kremlin’s domestic and international interests. While Russia’s use of hybrid strategies has grown markedly in recent...
Policy Memo # 522
Mariya Omelicheva 04 Apr 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Over the short run, Russia’s acrimonious relations with the West are serving the Kremlin’s broader effort of heightening its influence in its “near abroad.” In 2014, Russia was hit by a triple whammy of low oil prices, Western sanctions, and Moscow’s counter-sanctions. During the following year, Russia’s economic problems spread to states that have close economic, demographic, and political ties with it. However, a combination of...
Policy Memo # 521
Olexiy Haran, Petro Burkovsky 02 Apr 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Before Donald Trump’s ascension to power, Washington, Berlin, and Paris were essentially on the same policy page toward pacifying the conflict in Donbas. The broad aim was to contain the violence and facilitate direct talks between Moscow and Kyiv. The Trump administration’s track toward Russia and Donbas has been disjointed, but lately it appears to involve more sanctions as well as arming Ukraine. Top advisors and members of...
Policy Memo # 520
Lucan Way, Adam Casey 29 Mar 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Russian interference in the 2016 election in the United States is part of a long pattern of interference dating back to the early 1990s. What did Russia seek to achieve and what were the impacts? Utilizing a range of publicly available sources, we compiled an original dataset of all 27 instances of Russian interference in foreign elections since 1991. We describe the nature of the interferences and whether the results of the...
Policy Memo # 519
Farid Guliyev 28 Mar 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) In oil-rich Azerbaijan, contrary to many other countries, education does not seem to influence social capital, ceteris paribus. Here, citizens with higher levels of education are not more likely than their less educated peers to trust others or engage in community activities such as volunteering or donating to a charity. The dramatic decline in educational quality over the past two decades has contributed a great deal to civic...
Policy Memo # 518
Caress Schenk 16 Mar 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Russia's immigration system is consistently presented as draconian and inhumane. Human rights organizations, mass media, and scholars alike use labor slavery, violations of rights, and vulnerable migrants excluded from the formal labor market as common frames to conceptualize Russia’s migration context. Discussions tend to focus on certain policy mechanisms and their implementation and enforcement, advancing the claim that the...
Policy Memo # 517
Yuriy Matsiyevsky 13 Mar 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Unfinished reforms, growing social discontent, and ongoing war with Russia deeply destabilize Ukraine. Under such strained conditions, what are the chances of Ukraine’s current government, and specifically the presidency of Petro Poroshenko, to survive until the end of their elected terms? Regime stability is a condition for the success of economic and political modernization and for the termination of the Donbas conflict. While...
Policy Memo # 516
Marlene Laruelle 12 Mar 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) The current U.S. debate on Russia is shaped by conspiratorial narratives that see Russia meddling in almost every issue of U.S. political life. This frenzy is reinforced by the fact that Republicans and Democrats now share a relatively similar anti-Russia agenda that is inspired by Cold War “Red Scare” rhetoric. One conspiratorial narrative revolves around connections between Russia and part of the American far right. This topic...
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