Policy Memos | Аналитические записки

Policy Memo # 119
Henry Hale 01 Apr 2000
Now that Russia has entered the new millennium with a new leader and a new parliament, it is time to take stock of the democratization process in Russia. This memo addresses two questions: • How far has Russia come? The answer is that Russia merits a grade of B in democratization. The progress has been immense since 1985, but its elections have not been satisfactorily free or fair. The greatest abuses, however, have taken place not at the federal...
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Policy Memo # 118
Theodore Gerber 01 Apr 2000
Since the Soviet collapse, Russia has experienced a number of unfavorable demographic developments: • Falling fertility. The crude birth rate (births per 1000 population) declined from 12.1 in 1991 to 8.6 in 1997. Although some of the decline can be attributed to the changing age structure of the population, falling age-specific birth rates suggest that Russia's post-Soviet economic and social difficulties are the primary causes. •...
Policy Memo # 117
Mikhail Alexseev 01 Apr 2000
Since becoming the Acting President of the Russian Federation in late 1999, Vladimir Putin has spoken with utmost clarity about his concern for the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation and his intent to increase the concentration of political power with the executive agencies of central government in Moscow. Addressing Russian troops in Chechnya in early January 2000, after the relentless "Christmas bombardment" of Grozny, Putin said...
Policy Memo # 116
Brian Taylor 01 Apr 2000
Russian President Vladimir Putin aggressively wooed the man in uniform during his victorious campaign for the Kremlin, from the time of his appointment as prime minister in August 1999 until his election in March 2000. Putin stressed the need to restore Russian pride and power, promised to make good on past debts to officers, pushed for an increase in military spending, and restored military training courses to the schools. Most prominently, he gave the...
Policy Memo # 115
Steve Solnik 01 Apr 2000
Since Vladimir Putin became Prime Minister of Russia in August 1999, and especially since he assumed the presidency on December 31, he has placed a high priority on reasserting federal control over regional policy and politics. This objective has been a natural corollary of his focus on re-integrating Chechnya into the Russian Federation at all costs. In addition, many Western and Russian observers have pointed to his speculation about a return to direct...
Policy Memo # 114
Vadim Radaev 01 Apr 2000
Russia is currently on the edge of a third stage of economic and political reform. The first stage (1985-1991) was political liberalization. Transformation of the communist political and ideological regime with a turn toward democracy was at the heart of the whole Gorbachev period. This stage culminated with severe political crisis (the coup of August 1991) and the split of the Soviet Union. The second stage (1992-1998) was that of economic...
Policy Memo # 113
Nikolay Petrov 01 Apr 2000
The first relatively free and fair elections to the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR took place on March 26, 1989. These elections gave a strong impetus to the political development of the society and started a period of electoral democracy. Though shocked, the Soviet nomenklatura did not disappear. Adjusting to the changed conditions, the Russian nomenklatura came to the 1993 elections more or less prepared. The unstable array of political...
Policy Memo # 112
Georgi Derluguian 01 Apr 2000
The second president of Russia seems as surprised as anyone by his rapid ascension to the helm. Vladimir Putin's machismo, stiffness, the blurtings of hooligan jargon and the almost brazen ideological evasiveness--are all signs that add up to a gloomy teenager who cannot decide whether to be the best pupil or the schoolyard bully, and so does both. For now, let us leave Putin interpreting and instead focus on the horizon that he faces. [...] Read...
Policy Memo # 111
Celeste A. Wallander 01 Mar 2000
I would like to suggest--and I don't know if this goes against the grain or with the grain--that we've very badly mismanaged US-Russian relations. I will focus my remarks on the political and security field. Specifically, I will: • explain what I think was the basis for our policy towards Russia in the last decade; • offer some observations on why that policy failed; • argue that Kosovo and Chechnya are intimately linked and...
Policy Memo # 110
Henry Hale 01 Feb 2000
Recent developments in Russian politics have been widely interpreted as signaling a groundswell of public support for aggressive Russian nationalism. The story goes like this: Prime Minister (and now acting President) Vladimir Putin rode the brutal war in Chechnya to the top of the presidential polls. Candidates for Duma seats competed to whip up ferocious bloodlust. The parties that most closely associated themselves with Putin's cruel operation won...

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