Policy Memos | Аналитические записки

Policy Memo # 79
Vadim Volkov 01 Oct 1999
The inability of the Russian state to enforce property rights and protect private entrepreneurs has been a major obstacle to economic growth. As the state became weak and lost its grip on justice and enforcement, alternative agencies emerged and took over these functions. But the competition between various criminal, private, and quasi-state agencies that offer protection and enforcement services has proven economically inefficient. Nor has it improved...
Policy Memo # 78
Vadim Radaev 01 Oct 1999
More than one year has passed since the financial and economic crisis of autumn 1998. How do Russian entrepreneurs struggle through these critical moments? Who are the winners and losers in this enforced restructuring? What limitations have appeared and what new opportunities have been opened for entrepreneurs? This memo is a synopsis of a longer paper tackling these issues with special reference to Russian small enterprises (SMEs). [...] Read full text...
Policy Memo # 77
Georgi Derluguian 01 Oct 1999
How big and how real is the Russian mafia? I propose to treat it as a sociobiological object that occupies a place in food chains, with its proper morphology and metabolism. This theoretical approach allows us to understand, for example, how the tough habitat of a glacier lake might sustain a Loch Ness monster--but only as an elusive and small population. How do we study the Russian gangsters who are mostly secretive creatures, arguably many of whom are...
Policy Memo # 76
Regina Smyth 01 Oct 1999
US, NGO and Russian efforts to build effective political parties in Russia have met with limited success. Despite the clear potential for Russian parties to foster elite cooperation over policy solutions and popular control of government, elections have revealed parties to be little more than temporary campaign organizations for ambitious elites in Moscow and in the regions. Underdeveloped parties create the danger that Russian voters will become...
Tags:Russia
Policy Memo # 75
Eduard Ponarin 01 Oct 1999
At first glance, the probable political victory of the Primakov-Luzhkov duo in the wake of the failure of liberal reforms in Russia looks like a regressive return to the bureaucratic administrative system. However, as one looks closer into the reasons for the liberals' failure and mulls over various alternatives, this scenario, while still very disappointing, may not look so bleak. The rapid collapse in Russia of the old administrative system in the...
Policy Memo # 74
Henry Hale 01 Oct 1999
It has become common wisdom that Russia has nothing we can call a party system. No fewer than 141 "electoral associations" registered with the Ministry of Justice by December 1998, and only the Communist Party is usually seen as much more than a small, leader-centric clique of individuals with no strong roots outside of Moscow or perhaps St. Petersburg. There are strong signs, however, that a real party system is now coalescing in Russia in the...
Tags:Russia, Hale
Policy Memo # 73
Vladimir Gelman 01 Oct 1999
The ongoing cycle of Russia's national elections--parliamentary elections scheduled for December 19, 1999, and presidential elections, which should be held July 9, 2000 according to the constitution- represent a threshold in Russia's electoral politics. They draw a line between the uncertain period of post-communist transition and the formation (if not consolidation) of a new political regime. This new regime could be either a liberal democracy or...
Policy Memo # 72
Bear Braumoeller 01 Oct 1999
The fact that the Russian Duma is not an institution designed to encourage small political parties will come as a surprise to no one, with the possible exception of the leaders of small Russian political parties. No fewer than 43 parties contended on the proportional representation (PR) ballot in the 1995 State Duma elections; 39 of them failed to clear the 5% hurdle necessary to secure any representation at all. As a result, the remaining four parties...
Policy Memo # 71
Kimberly Marten 01 Oct 1999
How can we best understand the ambiguous relationship between the United States and Russia in the United Nations today? On the one hand, their debates and disagreements are heated, and the two sides' definitions of their own national interests are often incompatible. Yet meetings of the UN Security Council (UNSC) are held almost daily, the meetings often focus on very sensitive issues, and the use of the veto by either country remains rare. This...
Policy Memo # 70
Celeste A. Wallander 01 Oct 1999
Other than coining of clever titles and claiming something new, is there any value to asking whether Russian-US relations are entering a post-post-Cold War world? I think so, because we have to understand that we have a different Russia in 1999 and the legacy of nearly a decade of relations, with both positive and very negative effects. Furthermore, it is important to understand what was right in Western policy, what was wrong, and why. This enables us to...

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