Policy Memo # 100
Екатерина Степанова 01 Dec 1999
Since Russia launched its "anti-terrorist campaign" in Chechnya in the fall of 1999, the West has stepped up criticism of Moscow's actions in the North Caucasus. While recognizing the lack of credible information from the conflict zone, the United States and its European allies continue to express growing concern about the level of civilian casualties and the number of refugees in Chechnya and neighboring regions. In this context, the OSCE...
Policy Memo # 99
Марк Крамер 01 Dec 1999
A number of recent developments have provoked unease in both Russia and the West about the state of Russia's civil-military relations. The Russian army's massive campaign in Chechnya, forceful comments by Russian military commanders, the promulgation of a new draft military doctrine, and the recent staging of military exercises and test launches by the Russian armed forces have prompted numerous commentators, such as William Odom, to claim that...
Policy Memo # 98
Eva Busza 01 Dec 1999
The convergence of a number of factors--both domestic and foreign--has provided the Russian military with a golden opportunity to increase its power in Russian politics. The conduct of the Russian intervention in Chechnya provides ample evidence that the military is taking advantage of this chance. Increased military involvement in policymaking is likely to be both dangerous to future democratic development and may lead to Russia's further alienation...
Policy Memo # 97
Steve Solnick 01 Oct 1999
The Russian state is highly fragmented, lacking a unified legal or economic space. Nevertheless, fragmentation need not signal disintegration--officials of Russia's central government have proven resourceful at using the leverage of scarce resources to keep Russia intact. This memo examines the mechanisms of central control over Russia's regions. It has three primary goals, addressed in three separate sections: 1. It briefly reviews the history...
Policy Memo # 96
Николай Петров 01 Oct 1999
The Federation Council, the upper chamber of the Russian parliament (also referred to as the "senate,") plays a number of different roles. It is an instrument for reconciling the interests of regional and federal elites and for lobbying regional interests. It is a political tribune for regional leaders to address the president, the government and the people. It is a new kind of meeting for the party and administrative elite (partkhozaktiv, like...
Policy Memo # 95
Matthew Evangelista 01 Oct 1999
In the Russian North Caucasus history repeats itself again and again, always as tragedy. Russia's leaders seem incapable of grasping the subtle complexities of politics in Dagestan and Chechnya, despite over two centuries of contact with the region. Moscow's latest military actions promise to make a bad situation even worse. The most recent round of violent conflict in the North Caucasus broke out in August 1999 when Russian military forces...
Policy Memo # 94
Михаил Алексеев 01 Oct 1999
The improvement of relations between Moscow and Beijing in the late 1980s and the demise of the Soviet Union lifted the political, economic and cultural isolation of the Russian Far East from China. While creating economic incentives for cooperation, the cross-border flow of people, goods, and services has given rise to security concerns and socioeconomic grievances among political elites and the public in the Russian Far East. In Primorski Krai (Primor...
Policy Memo # 93
Николай Соков 01 Oct 1999
To some, the title of this memo might seem an overstatement. After all, Russia is engaged in two sets of important arms control negotiations. The CFE-2 talks are nearing completion and the Russian side seems reasonably satisfied with the outcome. Russia and the United States have officially launched consultations on the START III treaty and modification of the ABM Treaty after yet another failure in the continuing saga of START II...
Policy Memo # 92
Павел Подвиг 01 Oct 1999
In recent months the United States and Russia have made an attempt to revive the arms control dialogue. But instead of bringing a solution to the problems that hold up nuclear disarmament, this attempt has done nothing but expose the huge gap between the positions of the two countries on the most contentious issues, missile defense and START II ratification. The United States began the recent round of consultations with the...
Policy Memo # 91
Дебора Балл 01 Oct 1999
Assertions by the Russian military that all of their nuclear weapons are secure against theft and that nuclear units within the military are somehow insulated from the problems plaguing the Russian military should not be accepted uncritically. Accordingly, we should not give unwarranted credence to the pronouncements of military figures like Col.-Gen. Igor Valynkin, Chief of the Defense Ministry's 12th Main Directorate, which ...
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