Policy Memos | Аналитические записки

Policy Memo # 430
In September 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin declared that an inability to make much progress in the battle against corruption was one of his administration’s greatest failures. In fact, rising corruption has been a direct consequence of Putin’s policies to strengthen the state and to crack down on many elements of Russia’s civil society. The results of this expanding corruption will be felt in the upcoming 2007-2008 parliamentary...
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Policy Memo # 429
For years, Russia’s role in the Middle East was viewed primarily through its relations with Iran, Iraq, and, more recently, Syria. In 2006, however, a nearly forgotten dimension of Russia’s Middle East policy came to the fore with a new escalation of the Arab-Israeli conflict, this time in Lebanon. Russia has long played an extraneous role in the Quartet on the Middle East, the grouping composed of the United Nations, the European Union, the...
Policy Memo # 428
Kremlin has been reestablishing state ownership over its domestic extraction industries while driving foreign investors out. It has also used monopoly state control over its gas pipelines to exert political pressure on foreign partners. Russia seems to have similar aims in neighboring Kazakhstan. Moscow left Kazakhstan’s oilfields underdeveloped in Soviet times, concentrating its efforts on western Siberia instead. Yet a network of Soviet-built...
Policy Memo # 427
From 1995 to 2005, more than 70 percent of Iran’s arms imports came from Russia, according to data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, a well-respected observer of global military transfers. Although Iran imported far fewer arms from Russia than either China or India during this time, it was still Russia’s third largest buyer. Russia’s weapons sales to Iran, as well as its assistance in developing Iran’s...
Policy Memo # 426
The 2006 return of Viktor Yanukovych to the post of Ukrainian prime minister has again raised questions about the direction of Ukraine’s foreign policy. Will Ukraine continue along the path of Euro-Atlantic integration which the Orange Revolution articulated, or will it oscillate between two competing centers of gravity, Russia and the West, as was the case before 2004? Many believe that Ukraine can do nothing else but fluctuate between Russia and...
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Policy Memo # 425
An impressive variety of approaches to energy as a subject of international politics can be divided largely into two clusters, based on concepts of security and transparency. These two concepts are similar in at least one respect: their areas of practical application are potentially far-reaching. The number of social, political, and economic spheres not represented as security matters is dwindling. Meanwhile, the concept of transparency is being applied...
Policy Memo # 424
The dissolution of the Soviet Union fifteen years ago took many in the United States by surprise. Whether or not the U.S. government ought to have been better prepared for this eventuality, U.S. decisionmakers had not done much thinking on how to deal with post-Soviet states before the actual disintegration occurred. In 1991, therefore, they were forced to start from scratch. The conceptual vacuum that followed was a protracted phenomenon. Not only had...
Policy Memo # 423
From July 2005 to July 2006 the status of the Manas (Ganci) U.S. military base in Kyrgyzstan became a central issue in U.S.-Kyrgyz relations and within Kyrgyz domestic politics. During this time, newly elected Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev demanded an exponential increase in U.S. compensation payments to the Kyrgyz Republic for use of the base and called for an investigation into how base-related revenues were accounted for during the regime of...
Policy Memo # 422
In the 15 years since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has been forced to reinterpret its role in international relations, reformulating its national interests and crafting new methods of participating in world affairs. Among the major challenges Russia has faced is determining how to deal with the new political map of Eurasia. While Moscow has had to develop new policies toward former constituent parts of the Soviet Union which, as independent...
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Policy Memo # 421
In dealing with Russia’s Muslim minority, the government in Moscow is facing a challenge that is likely to become more serious in coming years. By most estimates, self-identified Muslims make up at least 10 percent of the country’s total population of approximately 143 million. Looking at population size alone underestimates the political and demographic influence of Russia’s Muslims, however. Ethnic Muslims are growing in number even as...

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