An impressive variety of approaches to energy as a subject of international politics can be divided largely into two clusters, based on concepts of security and transparency. These two concepts are similar in at least one respect: their areas of practical application are potentially far-reaching. The number of social, political, and economic spheres not represented as security matters is dwindling. Meanwhile, the concept of transparency is being applied to an ever increasing spectrum of issue areas, from the spread of information on infectious diseases to early warning systems on conflict prevention.
The expansion of the concept of energy security is a good case in point. At the 2006 G8 summit in St. Petersburg, energy security was defined to encompass all links of the technological chain, from the exploration of energy resources, to energy production, to the transportation of energy products. Such a broad conception of energy security presumes that virtually every aspect of energy policy can be positioned within a security framework. [...]