Policy Memos

The 2010 Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union: A Classic Case of Prinuzhdenie k Druzhbe (Friendship Enforcement)

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The Customs Union (CU) between Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia signed in November 2009 and enacted on July 1, 2010, was a breakthrough integration project in the post-Soviet space. It happened just as all other regional unions and agreements—the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Eurasian Economic Community (EURASEC), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), and the Union of Belarus and Russia—have been failing due to conflicting interests and the lack of political will to honor and enforce treaties. [...]

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