Policy Memos | Аналитические записки

Policy Memo # 40
Stephen Hanson 01 Nov 1998
The most recent round of financial and political crises in Russia serve to underscore the growing power shift between the federal government in Moscow and the 89 units that comprise the Russian Federation. What follows is a brief examination of the formal and informal processes through which expanding spheres of political and economic autonomy have devolved to the Russian provinces. While these mechanisms include bilateral negotiations and the signing of...
Tags:Russia
Policy Memo # 39
Kathryn Stoner-Weiss 01 Nov 1998
The most recent round of financial and political crises in Russia serve to underscore the growing power shift between the federal government in Moscow and the 89 units that comprise the Russian Federation. What follows is a brief examination of the formal and informal processes through which expanding spheres of political and economic autonomy have devolved to the Russian provinces. While these mechanisms include bilateral negotiations and the...
Policy Memo # 38
David Woodruff 01 Nov 1998
Barter and other closely related forms of non-monetary exchange present a critical challenge for Russian public policy. As of early 1998, from 50 to 70% of exchange in industry took the form of barter, leaving many firms with too little cash to pay salaries and taxes. Both the federal and local governments use non-monetary taxation extensively. In 1997, at least one quarter of the revenue collected for the federal budget took a non-monetary form. Although...
Policy Memo # 37
Mark Kramer 01 Nov 1998
This policy memo discusses economic reform in Russia and the role of the US government between 1992 and 1998. It begins by reviewing the general strategy of shock therapy in Eastern Europe, comparing it with what actually happened in Russia. It then highlights the shortcomings of US support for specific economic policies in Russia and the pressure exerted by the United States on the International Monetary Fund (IMF) when the Fund was reluctant to provide...
Policy Memo # 36
Randall Stone 01 Nov 1998
This policy memo discusses economic reform in Russia and the role of the US government between 1992 and 1998. It begins by reviewing the general strategy of shock therapy in Eastern Europe, comparing it with what actually happened in Russia. It then highlights the shortcomings of US support for specific economic policies in Russia and the pressure exerted by the United States on the International Monetary Fund (IMF) when the Fund was reluctant to provide...
Policy Memo # 35
Pauline Jones 01 Nov 1998
The ruble's imminent plummet, amid increasing revenue shortages and foreign debt, has been the focus of international attention toward Russia and elite domestic strife within Russia for the past several months. In their desperate attempt to find a solution, as well as to avoid taking (their share of) the blame, both sides have cited separate causes. International lenders claim that the primary source of Russia's economic ills is the government...
Policy Memo # 34
Kimberly Marten 01 Sep 1998
It is a well known fact that the Russian military today is in terrible shape. Funding shortfalls are so severe that basic needs go unmet. Neither officers nor troops get paid on time, many officers' families are living in abysmal conditions because adequate housing is not available, food supplies for the troops have frequently been found to be contaminated or unfit for human consumption, and the amount of time given to combat training is very low...
Policy Memo # 33
Randall Stone 01 Sep 1998
We have to recognize that the Russian financial meltdown is a product of two factors: (A) a policy of accumulating debt to cover huge Russian fiscal deficits, which had been pursued since 1995, and was unsustainable in the long run, and (B) the increased volatility of global capital markets in the wake of the Asian crisis. Russian policymakers and international investors made bad bets, as is obvious in hindsight, but neither the timing nor the severity of...
Policy Memo # 32
Stuart Kaufman 01 Sep 1998
Current prospects for resolving the conflict in the Abkhazia region of Georgia are poor. Framework agreements have been reached, but these merely paper over differences on the central issues at stake: the degree of Abkhaz autonomy, and the return of displaced Georgians to Abkhazia. Neither side shows evidence of good faith or restraint from the use of force; public opinion on both sides is even more hard-line. Russia's closing of Abkhazia's...
Policy Memo # 31
Michael McFaul 01 Aug 1998
When presidents Bill Clinton and Boris Yeltsin meet in Moscow next month, issues such as START II, NATO expansion, trade with Iran and Iraq, and Russia's new draconian law on religion are likely to dominate the agenda. To historians of US-Soviet relations, this agenda should sound familiar as arms control, European security, regional conflicts, and human rights were the main components of most summit agendas between the United States and the Soviet...

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